Obesity & hunger related illnesses.

1.y: Tai og Jacob
1.s: Riza og Bjarke

Obesity

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared obesity a worldwide epidemic. Actually more than 30,6 % of the people in the US are obese.

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a person’s weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight.

Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.

Genes can have an impact on whether you are obese or not, but it is first when you ”activate” those specific genes, that they can have an influence. How the genes can be "activated":

· Your diet is packed with to many calories

· Your meals are to few and too irregular

· Lack of excercise. Your fysical activity is deficient.


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Obese people in Denmark. Left - Men. Right - Women. Shown in percentage of the danish population. Divided in agegroups.

Hunger

Hunger in general. Jacob

Obesity related illnesses












More than 61% of americans over 20 are overweight, and one-fourth american adults are obese. That is a huge problem, that we need to do something about. We have to stop the problem, before it reaches 100 percent of the United States. But obesity still continues increase in men, women and children. Children who is between six and seventeen have a obesity crisis. Since 1980 the number of overweight children has doubled. That is not a good sign when there is 300.000 deaths a year og the obesity. The states are using billions of dollars in health care costs every year to provite these kinds of deaths. But still people eating to much unhealthy food.
  1. High Blood pressure, hypertension - One-third of all cases of high blood pressure are associated with obesity High blood pressure is twice as common in adults who are obese than in those who are at a healthy weight.

  2. High blood cholesterol - 50% more likely to have elevated blood cholesterol levels.

  3. Diabetes Type 2 - non-insulin dependent accounts for nearly 90% of all cases of diabetes. Researchers estimate that 88 to 97% of type 2 diabetes cases diagnosed in overweight people are a direct result of obesity

  4. Congestive heart failure - obesity increases the risk of congestive heart failure, a potentially fatal condition in which the heart muscle weakens, progressively losing the ability to pump blood.

  5. Heart disease - heart attack, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death, angina or chest pain, and abnormal heart rhythm is increased in persons who are overweight or obese.

  6. Stroke - There is a link between obesity and stroke; this is particularly the case for people whose fat is situated predominantly in the abdominal region. Overweight people are more likely to have high blood cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, but these associations are not the only explanations for the greater stroke rate.

  7. Gallstones and gallbladder disorders.

  8. Gout - the condition may develop in people with obesity incidents are remarkably higher, Gout is strongly associated with obesity.

  9. Osteoarthritis - Obesity may be a major factor in the development of osteoarthritis, particularly of the knee and especially in women.

  10. Some types of cancer -such as endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon

  11. Complications of pregnancy.

  12. Bladder control problems - such as stress incontinence.


Obesity related illnesses

Hunger related illnesses

The three most common deficiencies caused by hunger is Vitamin A deficiency, Iron deficiency and iodine deficiency, these deficiencies can cause different illnesses described bellow:

1. Vitamin A Deficiency: Vitamin A requirements increase during pregnancy and development, which is why 30% of children in South Asia and Africa suffer from the growth retardation caused by Vitamin A deficiency. “Vitamin A is a constituent of retinal which is found in the rods of the retina of the eye combined with a protein called “opsin” to form visual purple (also called rhodopsin). Vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness. Vitamin A is also responsible for maintaing a normal surface of the eye (the cornea) and deficiency leads to drying of the eye surface – a condition called xerophthalmia. This can lead to blue cloudiness of the eye followed by ulcer formation” (http://www.provet.co.uk/petfacts/healthtips/vitamina.htm).

The most common cause of vitamin A deficiency is blindness in young children.
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2. Iron Deficiency: This condition is the principle cause of anemia, a disease that affects about 2 billion people worldwide. Anemia causes abnormally low blood hemoglobin levels which prevents enough oxygen from circulating throughout the body. Iron deficiency leads to premature births, low birth weight, and increased infant mortality. Iron deficiency causes 20% of all maternal deaths worldwide. The problem is compounded by diseases and conditions, such as malaria and parasites, that are common in developing countries. These conditions affect the rate of absorption of Iron from the intestines (http://www.nps.ars.usda.gov/projects/projects.htm?accn_no=405631).
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3. iodine Deficiency: This condition affects over 740 million people worldwide, that’s 20% of the world population. Iodine deficiency can cause cretinism, a severe and irreversible form of mental retardation in children. About 50 million people suffer from some type of mental illness caused by lack of iodine. Deficiency of iodine during pregnancy can cause stillbirths and spontaneous abortions. Iodine deficiency also causes goitre. “In this instance, thyroid enlargment can be viewed as an attempt to compensate for inadequate hormone production by the thyroid, in turn causing insuffiecient iodine for hormone synthesis”. Iodine deficiency is also responsible for physical sluggishness, growth retardation, and total reproductive failure. Iodine does not occur naturally in specific foods like Iron and Vitamin A, but rather inhabits the soil and is ingested through foods grown in the soil (http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jtd/iccidd/iodman/iodman1.htm).
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Tai

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Hunger
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